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Comparisons of Continuous Atmospheric Ch4, Co2 and N2O Measurement...

By: S. Hammer; I. Levin; B. Wastine; T. G. Spain; S. O'Doherty; A. Jordan; S. N. Vardag

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Heidelberg University, Germany. A 2-month measurement campaign with a Fourier transform infrared analyser as a travelling comparison instrument (TCI) was performed at the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station at Mace Head, Ireland. The aim was to evaluate the compatibility of atmospheric methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO...

Bakker, D. C. E., Bange, H. W., Gruber, N., Johannessen, T., Upstill-Goddard, R. C., Borges, A. V., Delille, B., Löscher, C. R., Naqvi, S. W. A., Omar, A. M., and Santana-Casiano, J. M.: Air-Sea Interactions of Natural Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) in a Changing Climate, in: Ocean-atmospheric interactions of gases and particles, edited by: Liss, P. S. and Johnson, M. T., Springer Verlag, 315 pp.,

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Impacts of the January 2005 Solar Particle Event on Noctilucent Cl...

By: H. Winkler; M. J. Schwartz; M. García-comas; A. Lambert; J. P. Burrows; J. M. Wissing; C. Von Savigny

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The response of noctilucent clouds to the solar particle event in January 2005 is investigated by means of icy particle and ion chemistry simulations. It is shown that the decreasing occurrence rate of noctilucent clouds derived from measurements of the SCIAMACHY/Envisat instrument can be reproduced by one-dimensional model simulations if temperature data from the MLS/Aura instrument are us...

Bardeen, C. G., Toon, O. B., Jensen, E. J., Marsh, D. R., and Harvey, V. L.: Numerical simulations of the three-dimensional distribution of meteoric dust in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17202, doi:10.1029/2007JD009515, 2008.; Becker, E. and von Savigny, C.: Dynamical heating of the polar summer mesopause induced by solar proton events, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00I18,

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Aerosol Ageing in an Urban Plume – Implications for Climate and He...

By: J. Pagels; P. Roldin; J. Löndahl; A. Massling; E. Swietlicki; A. Eriksson; A. Kristensson; S. Gustafsson

Description: Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, 221 00, Lund, Sweden. The climate and health effects downwind of an urban area resulting from gaseous and particulate emissions within the city are as yet inadequately quantified. The aim of this work was to estimate these effects for Malmö city in Southern Sweden (population 280 000). The chemical and physical particle properties were simulated with a model for Aerosol Dynamics, gas phase CHEMistry and radi...

Arneth, A., Niinemets, Ü., Pressley, S., Bäck, J., Hari, P., Karl, T., Noe, S., Prentice, I. C., Serça, D., Hickler, T., Wolf, A., and Smith, B.: Process-based estimates of terrestrial ecosystem isoprene emissions: incorporating the effects of a direct CO2-isoprene interaction, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 31–53, doi:10.5194/acp-7-31-2007, 2007.; Chaix, B., Gustafsson, S., Jerrett, M., Kristersson, H., Lithman, T., Boalt, Å, and Merlo, J.: Children's exposure to nit...

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Meteorology During the Domino Campaign and Its Connection with Tra...

By: P. J. Hidalgo; M. Sorribas; J. Vilà-guerau De Arellano; M. A. Hernández-ceballos; Z. Hosaynali-beygi; M. Martínez; J. Lelieveld; J.-m. Diesch; H. Fischer; R. Sander; B. De La Morena; F. Drewnick; V. Sinha; H. Harder; J. Williams; J. A. Adame; W. Song

Description: Atmospheric Sounding Station – El Arenosillo, Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch, National Institute for Aerospace Technology, Huelva, Spain. The DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen Oxides) campaign was carried out from 21 November to 8 December 2008 at El Arenosillo station (SW of Spain) in a coastal-rural background environment. The main weather conditions are analysed using local meteorological variables, m...

Adame, J. A., Bolívar, J. P., and De la Morena, B.: Surface ozone measurements in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Huelva, Spain), Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 17, 355–368, doi:10.1007/s11356-008-0098-9, 2010a.; Adame, J. A., Serrano, E., Bolívar, J. P., and De la Morena, B.: On the tropospheric ozone variations in a coastal area of the southwestern Europe under mesoscale circulation, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 4...

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Quantifying Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Uk Using ...

By: A. Grant; A. J. Manning; D. Young; W. T. Sturges; J. B. Moncrieff; D. E. Oram; A. L. Ganesan; S. O'Doherty

Description: School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. The UK is one of several countries around the world that has enacted legislation to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Monitoring of emissions has been done through a detailed sectoral level bottom-up inventory (UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, NAEI) from which national totals are submitted yearly to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change. In parallel, the UK government ha...

Bergamaschi, P., Corazza, M., Karstens, U., Athanassiadou, M., Thompson, R. L., Pison, I., Manning, A. J., Bousquet, P., Segers, A., Vermeulen, A. T., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Schmidt, M., Ramonet, M., Meinhardt, F., Aalto, T., Haszpra, L., Moncrieff, J., Popa, M. E., Lowry, D., Steinbacher, M., Jordan, A., O'Doherty, S., Piacentino, S., and Dlugokencky, E.: Top-down estimates of European CH4 and N2O emissions based on four different inverse models, A...

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Long Term Halocarbon Observations from A~coastal and an Inland Sit...

By: M. J. Ashfold; B. Gostlow; N. R. P. Harris; H. E. Ung; S. Ong; L. M. O'Brien; M. Mohamad; S. E. Yong; L. K. Peng; N. J. Warwick; S. M. Phang; A. D. Robinson; J. A. Pyle; E. J. Beardmore; A. A. Samah; M. S. M. Nadzir

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, UK. Short lived halocarbons are believed to have important sources in the tropics where rapid vertical transport could provide a significant source to the stratosphere. In this study, quasi-continuous measurements of short-lived halocarbons are reported for two tropical sites in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo), one coastal and one inland (rainforest). We present the obse...

Amachi, S., Kamagata, Y., Kanagawa, T., and Muramatsu, Y.: Bacteria mediate methylation of iodine in marine and terrestrial environments, Appl. Environ. Microb., 67, 2718–2722, 2001.; Andreae, M. O., Atlas, E., Harris, G. W., Helas, G., de Kock, A., Koppmann, R., Maenhaut, W., Manø, S. M., Pollock, W. H., Rudolph, J., Scharffe, D., Schebeske, G., and Welling, M.: Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23603–23613, 1996.; Asc...

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Influence of Satellite-derived Photolysis Rates and NoX Emissions ...

By: D. S. Cohan; X. Xiao; A. Pour-biazar; B. Lash; A. White; W. Tang; W. Zhou; L. N. Lamsal; B. H. Henderson

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street MS 519, Houston, TX 77005, USA. Uncertain photolysis rates and emission inventory impair the accuracy of state-level ozone (O3) regulatory modeling. Past studies have separately used satellite-observed clouds to correct the model-predicted photolysis rates, or satellite-constrained top-down NOx emissions to identify and reduce uncertainties in...

Allen, D. J., Pickering, K. E., Pinder, R. W., Henderson, B. H., Appel, K. W., and Prados, A.: Impact of lightning-NO on eastern United States photochemistry during the summer of 2006 as determined using the CMAQ model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1737–1758, doi:10.5194/acp-12-1737-2012, 2012.; Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., Veefkind, J. P., Brinksma, E. J., van der A, R. J., Sneep, M., van den Oord, G. H. J., Levelt, P. ...

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An Improved Kalman Smoother for Atmospheric Inversions : Volume 5,...

By: D. F. Baker; W. Peters; A. M. Michalak; L. M. P. Bruhwiler; P. Tans

Description: NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA. We explore the use of a fixed-lag Kalman smoother for sequential estimation of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. This technique takes advantage of the fact that most of the information about the spatial distribution of sources and sinks is observable within a few months to half of a year of emission. After this period, the spatial structure of sources is diluted by transport an...

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Ensemble Simulations of the Role of the Stratosphere in the Attrib...

By: Q. Tang; D. Kinnison; P. Hess

Description: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Despite the need to understand the impact of changes in emissions and climate on tropospheric ozone, attribution of tropospheric interannual ozone variability to specific processes has proved difficult. Here we analyze the stratospheric contribution to tropospheric ozone variability and trends from 1953–2005 in the Northern Hemisphere (N.~H.) mid-latitudes using four ensemble simulations of the Free ...

Andrews, D. G., Holton, J. R., and Leovy, C. B.: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 489 pp., 1987.; Butchart, N., Scaife, A. A., Bourqui, M., de Grandpre, J., Hare, S. H. E., Kettleborough, J., Langematz, U., Manzini, E., Sassi, F., and Shibata, K.: Simulations of anthropogenic change in the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, Clim. Dynam., 27, 727–741, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0162-4

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Large-eddy Simulation of Organized Precipitating Trade Wind Cumulu...

By: T. Heus; A. Seifert

Description: Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg, Germany. Trade wind cumulus clouds often organize in along-wind cloud streets and across-wind mesoscale arcs. We present a benchmark large-eddy simulation which resolves the individual clouds as well as the mesoscale organization on scales of O(10 km). Different methods to quantify organization of cloud fields are applied and discussed. Using perturbed physics large-eddy sim...

Tompkins, A.: Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: the role of cold pools, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 1650–1672, 2001.; Atkinson, B. and Zhang, J.: Mesoscale shallow convection in the atmosphere, Rev. Geophys., 34, 403–431, 1996.; Berner, A. H., Bretherton, C. S., and Wood, R.: Large-eddy simulation of mesoscale dynamics and entrainment around a pocket of open cells observed in VOCALS-REx RF06, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10525–10540, doi:

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Bromine and Iodine Chemistry in a Global Chemistry-climate Model: ...

By: S. Tilmes; D. R. Blake; D. E. Kinnison; A. Saiz-lopez; C. Ordóñez; E. L. Atlas; G. Sousa Santos; G. Brasseur; J.-f. Lamarque

Description: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science (CIAC), CSIC, Toledo, Spain. The global chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem has been extended to incorporate an expanded bromine and iodine chemistry scheme that includes natural oceanic sources of very short-lived (VSL) halocarbons, gas-phase photochemistry and heterogeneous reactions on aerosols. Ocean emissions of five VSL bromocarbons (CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHB...

Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Hampson, R. F., Kerr, J. A., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated Kinetic and Photochemical Data for Atmospheric Chemistry: Supplement VIII, Halogen Species Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 29, 167, doi:10.1063/1.556058, 2000.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson Jr, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Kerr, J. A., Rossi, M....

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Ground-level Ozone in Four Chinese Cities: Precursors, Regional Tr...

By: T. Wang; J. Gao; A. J. Ding; D. R. Blake; L. K. Xue; W. X. Wang; S. J. Fan; X. F. Wang; X. H. Zhou; H. C. Zuo; Q. Z. Zhang; S. M. Saunders

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and ...

Aldener, M., Brown, S., Stark, H., Williams, E., Lerner, B., Kuster, W., Goldan, P., Quinn, P., Bates, T., and Fehsenfeld, F.: Reactivity and loss mechanisms of NO3 and N2O5 in a polluted marine environment: results from in situ measurements during New England Air Quality Study 2002, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S73, doi:10.1029/2006JD007252, 2006.; Aumont, B., Chervier, F., and Laval, S.: C...

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Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Commercial Cornfield (Zea Mays) Mea...

By: S. Bhattarai; K. C. Reddy; D. Hui; J. Wang; D. Smart; D. R. Miller; H. Huang; S. Dennis; T. Sammis

Description: Climate and Atmospheric Science Section, Illinois State Water Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, IL 61802, USA. Increases in observed atmospheric concentrations of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have been well documented. However, information on event-related instantaneous emissions during fertilizer applications is lacking. With the development of fast-response N2...

Arnold, K., Nilsson, M., Hanell, B., Weslien, P., and Klemedtsson, L.: Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests, Soil Biol. Biochem., 37, 1059–1071, 2005.; Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, Ü., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grünwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valen...

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Photochemical Production of Aerosols from Real Plant Emissions : V...

By: R. Tillmann; R. Fisseha; E. Dinar; Th. Hohaus; Th. F. Mentel; H. Spahn; A. Kiendler-scharr; E. Kleist; A. Wahner; J. Wildt; P. T. Griffiths; R. Uerlings; Y. Rudich; R. Wegener; M. Dal Maso

Description: Institute for Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Institute 2: Troposphere, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany. By emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which on oxidation form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) the vegetation is coupled to atmosphere and climate. New particle formation from tree emissions was investigated in a new setup: a plant chamber coupled to a reaction chamber for oxidizing the plant emissions and for forming ...

Allan, J. D., Alfarra, M. R., Bower, K. N., Coe, H., Jayne, J. T., Worsnop, D. R., Aalto, P. P., Kulmala, M., Hyötyläinen, T., Cavalli, F., and Laaksonen, A.: Size and composition measurements of background aerosol and new particle growth in a Finnish forest during QUEST 2 using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 315–327, 2006.; Atkinson, R. and Arey, J.: Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of biogenic volatile organic compounds: A review, Atmos. ...

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Technical Note: the Cccma Third Generation Agcm and Its Extension ...

By: J. Li; N. A. McFarlane; M. Lazare; D. Plummer; J. F. Scinocca

Description: Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Environment Canada, Victoria, B. C., Canada. The Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis third generation atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM3) is described. The discussion summarizes the details of the complete physics package emphasizing the changes made relative to the second generation version of the model. AGCM3 is the underlying model for applications which include the IPCC fou...

Fomichev, V. I. and Blanchet, J.-P., and Turner, D. S.: Matrix parameterization of the 15 μm CO2 band cooling in the middle and upper atmosphere for, variable CO2 concentration, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 11 505–11 528, 1998.; Fomichev, V. I., Fu, C., de Grandpre, J., Beagley, S. R., Ogibalov, V. P., and McConnell, J. C.: Model thermal response to minor radiative energy sources and sinks in the middle atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19107, doi:10.10...

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Observations and Comparisons of Cloud Microphysical Properties in ...

By: J. R. Dorsey; A. C. R. Kirchgaessner; T. W. Choularton; M. W. Gallagher; K. N. Bower; H. Jones; J. Crosier; T. Lachlan-cope; G. Lloyd; P. Connolly

Description: Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Measurements from four case studies in spring and summer-time Arctic stratocumulus clouds during the Aerosol–Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign are presented. We compare microphysics observations between cases and with previous measurements made in the Arctic and Antarctic. During ACCACIA, stratocumulus clouds were observed to consist of liquid...

Baumgardner, D., Jonsson, H., Dawson, W., O'Connor, D., and Newton, R.: The cloud, aerosol and precipitation spectrometer: a new instrument for cloud investigations, Atmos. Res., 59–60, 251–264, doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(01)00119-3, 2001.; Bergeron, T.: On the Physics of Clouds and Precipitation, Proces Verbaux de l'Association de Météorologie, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 156–178, 1935.; Brown, P...

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Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements of Pollutant Gases in Urban Mexi...

By: R. Ramos; E. Allwine; E. Velasco; T. Jobson; F. Hernández; S. Pressley; R. Grivicke; T. Coons; L. T. Molina; H. Westberg; B. Lamb; W. Foster

Description: Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA. Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric chemistry and the role that cities play in regional and global chemical cycles. As part of the MCMA-2003 stud...

Ammann, C., Brunner, A., Spirig, C., and Neftel, A.: Technical note: Water vapour concentration and flux measurements with PTR-MS, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4643–4651, 2006.; Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, Ü., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalsky, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grünwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesela, T.: Estimates of the annual n...

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Model Study of the Cross-tropopause Transport of Biomass Burning P...

By: Y. Yoshida; S. E. Strahan; B. N. Duncan

Description: Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We present a modeling study of the troposphere-to-stratosphere transport (TST) of pollution from major biomass burning regions to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and lower stratosphere (LS). We show that biomass burning pollution regularly and significantly impacts the composition of the TTL/LS. TST occurs through 1) slow ascent in the TT...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J. Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., and Arkin, P.: The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4(6), 1147–1167, 2003.; Andreae, M. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15, 955–966, 2001.; Hack, J. J.: Param...

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An Ecosystem-scale Perspective of the Net Land Methanol Flux: Synt...

By: R. Seco; C. Ammann; A. Arneth; Q. Laffineur; C. Amelynck; G. W. Schade; K. McKinney; L. Hörtnagl; T. Holst; I. Bamberger; A. Neftel; B. Heinesch; G. Wohlfahrt; S. G. Pallardy; L. Gu; N. Schoon; A. Hansel; A. H. Goldstein; J. W. Munger; A. Guenther; T. Karl

Description: Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the...

Abanda-Nkpwatt, D., Müsch, M., Tschiersch, J., Boettner, M., and Schwab, W.: Molecular interaction between Methylobacterium extorquens and seedlings: growth promotion, methanol consumption, and localization of the methanol emission site, J. Exp. Bot., 57, 4025–4032, doi:10.1093/jxb/erl173, 2006.; Arneth, A. and Niinemets, Ü.: Induced BVOCs: how to bug our models?, Trends Plant Sci., 15, 118–125,

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Source Apportionment of Elevated Wintertime Pahs by Compound-speci...

By: C. Johansson; P. Krecl; M. Krusaring;; R. J. Sheesley; Ö. Gustafsson

Description: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Natural abundance radiocarbon analysis facilitates distinct source apportionment between contemporary biomass/biofuel (14C alive) versus fossil fuel (14C dead) combustion. Here, the first compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) of atmospheric polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was demonstrated for a set of samples collected in...

Bench, G., Fallon, S., Schichtel, B., Malm, W., and McDade, C.: Relative contributions of fossil and contemporary carbon sources to PM 2.5 aerosols at nine Interagency Monitoring for Protection of Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network sites, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D10205, doi:10.1029/2006JD007708, 2007.; Benner, B. A., Wise, S. A., Currie, L. A., Klouda, G. A., Klinedinst, D. B., Zweidinger, R. B., Stevens, R. K., and Lewis, C. W.: Distinguishing the contributions...

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